# Second Grade Math Expectations

Simple addition and subtraction to 10 is vital. Second graders need to have all their combinations to 10 in long-term memory. For example, they need to know all the combinations that equal 10, such as 10+0, 9+1, 8+2, 7+3, 6+4, 5+5, 4+6, 3+7, 2+8, 1+9, 0+10. It is imperative that they are able to do the same for all the combinations that equal 9, 8, etc. Subtraction is difficult for young children if they do not have these combinations in long-term memory.

Some of the games on the first grade CD are a valuable tool in reaching this goal. Try Turn Over Five, Total of 6, Pyramid, etc.

Second grade math gets into place value to a high degree. Children will compare and order whole numbers to 1,000. They will count and group objects into hundreds, tens, and ones. They will be adding and subtracting two-digit numbers with or without regrouping (what we used to call borrowing and carrying). There are some very effective games on the CD for practicing these concepts. Give Two-Digit War, Double Addition, or Double Subtraction a try.

Second grade math includes fractions. Children should understand halves, thirds, quarters, and eighths as parts of a set (see Fraction Kits on the CD).

Coins should be used in teaching money. Children will count mixed groups of coins including pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters. Equivalent forms of money values will be practiced (i.e. how many different ways can you make 23¢?). They should be able to count coins up to \$1.00. There are some wonderful games on the Second Grade CD for practicing money values.

Multiplication is introduced, primarily looking at multiplying by 2s, 5s, and 10s. Children are expected to skip count by these numbers and model with objects or drawings.

As a teacher, I have found that the most important thing parents can do to support their children’s mathematical growth at this age is to: count things!

Encourage your Second Grader (and younger children) to count all kinds of collections! This will provide your child with rich opportunities to practice oral counting, develop more efficient counting strategies, group objects in strategic ways, record numbers, and represent their thinking.

Research shows that counting is one of the best ways to help children build number sense. Children need lots of experiences with counting to learn which number comes next, how this number sequence is related to the objects they are counting, and how to keep track of which ones have been counted and which still need to be counted.

Experience with counting provides a solid foundation for future experiences with addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Count collections by 1s, 2s, 5s, and 10’s. Did the answer come out the same no matter how you counted it? This may seem like a no-brainer to adults, but to a child it is a concept that needs to be learned. Finally, begin to count everything by 10s – it is our base ten system, after all.

There are many games on the Second Grade Math Games CD that encourage counting.

The following are the California Second Grade Mathematics Standards. They indicate what your child should know and be able to do by the time he/she leaves Second Grade. I have included them because they are specific, rigorous, and reflect the Second Grade mathematics standards of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM).

If you would like to know what your state’s mathematics standards include, your child’s teacher or school will be glad to give you a copy.

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